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Ideal laser pointer for a long range distress signal at sea

athomson

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Hi,

First thanks for all the useful information that I've found on the forum already. I think I'm half way to working it out and hope you can get me the rest of the way.

There has been a product called the Greatland Rescue Laser Flare around for a decade without being updated to make it more powerful and it is I think not going to be the best way to go.

From what I have learned so far it seem like green will be the most visible wavelength relative to power and therefore longest lasting on a battery. From what I gather the difference is worth using green instead of red even though that might be more easily recognised as a distress signal.

Perhaps the ideal power is between 250 and 500mW. Enough to be clearly visible to a plane at 40,000ft but not so much as to cause a problem to a ship 3 or 4 miles away

maybe 3 milliradian divergence to make aiming a little easier though i guess a balance will need to be reached between power and divergence.

It needs to be as compact as possible so ideally 1x 18650 or 2x CR123A.

It must be waterproof (or able to be waterproofed) and have a twist switch, not a button that can be accidentally pressed.

First if you can advise better on these points please do. And if you can recommend a company that makes something please let me know.
 



Encap

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What Country are you in? Laser laws vary from Country to Country.
What you are imagining/daydreaming about, does not exist, nobody offers, nobody will supply for the purpose for several reasons among them USA laser laws, rules and regulations and liability issues for the specialized purpose. 5mW or less is the maximum eye-safe and legal output per USA FDA laser laws , rules and regulations most other place restrict to 1mW generally.

You could make a high powered laser pointer yourself/for yourself but as a "rescue" thing at sea would be pretty much a useless for several reasons.
Runtime of a 250mW to 500mW green or red pointer would be severely limited.
A. US FDA laws, rules and regulations limit legal manufacture of hand held lasers and laser devices as items of commerce to 5mW or less for importation and/or sale in USA unless you apply for a receive a "Variance" for the FDA allowing greater output--eg. laser show uses and similar.

Visibility -wise 532nm green is about 13X more visible than 650nm red however battery life of a CR123 is reduced from 40 hours to 3 hours in a <5mW unit due to the greater energy needed to produce 532nm green. See: https://slickscreen.github.io/laser-tools/brightness/

Have another look at the Greatland Laser site and perhaps call them to discuss. You need to gain a greater understanding of the purpose of the product and how it works.
They say "We are proud to say, in 23 years of developing and selling these unique devices, we have never had a safety issue. A laser signaling device like no other, Greatland’s technology can produce products offering choices of light colors, controllable beams, and a wide range of applications. Hand-held models, the size of a small, single-cell flashlight, project a laser light through a special lens that can be seen up to 30 miles. The patented technology converts a point of laser light into an expanding fan of light with much higher visibility than traditional signaling devices.

Have a look at the FAQs all of them are good/informative : https://www.greatlandlaser.com/faq/#Q7
and "about" https://www.greatlandlaser.com/about/
#4 says. "Wouldn't my laser pointer do the same thing?
No. In order to signal at a distance with a laser pointer, you would have to accurately hit your target in the eye in order for them to see you. Our products draw a line which fans out the further it goes. At 16 miles, you have a 6,000 ft. long fan of light with which to hit your target. Please see How They Work"

Bottom line: you can build a powerful pointer yourself or buy a powerful laser pointer from maker in China but forget about waterproof unless you want to put it in a waterproof bag perhaps, twist activation, use as a rescue/distress beacon, and long run time duty cycle, generally + without proper laser glasses/goggles would be more of "an eye accident looking for a place to happen" than a rescue or distress beacon
See: https://www.jetlasers.org/index.php and https://www.sanwulasers.com/

Have a look at this laser pointer hazard chart: https://www.lasersafetyfacts.com/resources/FAA---visible-laser-hazard-calcs-for-LSF-v02.png
Read up on laser safety here--best site in the web: https://www.laserpointersafety.com/
 
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athomson

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What Country are you in? Laser laws vary from Country to Country.
UK
What you are imagining/daydreaming about, does not exist, nobody offers, nobody will supply for the purpose for several reasons among them USA laser laws, rules and regulations and liability issues for the specialized purpose.
That point likely explains why none are available specifically for that purpose and the one that is is limited to <5mW. However it is not illegal to signal a plane with a laser in a genuine life or death situation which is the only situation I would use it. So my situation is it is legal but nothing is sold for that so i have to make do with something generally available which is why I'm here
5mW or less is the maximum eye-safe and legal output per USA FDA laser laws , rules and regulations most other place restrict to 1mW generally.
I accept it could be bogus but i see these things for sale laserpointerpro.com/500mw-532nm-green-laser-pointer-with-battery-and-charger-black-p-2591.html
You could make a high powered laser pointer yourself/for yourself but as a "rescue" thing at sea would be pretty much a useless for several reasons.
Runtime of a 250mW to 500mW green or red pointer would be severely limited.
Do yo have any info on power vs runtime? Or is it too variable between more or less efficient devices?
A. US FDA laws, rules and regulations limit legal manufacture of hand held lasers and laser devices as items of commerce to 5mW or less for importation and/or sale in USA unless you apply for a receive a "Variance" for the FDA allowing greater output--eg. laser show uses and similar.

Visibility -wise 532nm green is about 13X more visible than 650nm red
not sure what that link shows. But you are saying power use to produce light at different wavelengths is that different? In which case is there an agreed most efficient vs visibility? Cyan perhaps? or is green.
Have another look at the Greatland Laser site and perhaps call them to discuss. You need to gain a greater understanding of the purpose of the product and how it works.
They say "We are proud to say, in 23 years of developing and selling these unique devices, we have never had a safety issue. A laser signaling device like no other, Greatland’s technology can produce products offering choices of light colors, controllable beams, and a wide range of applications. Hand-held models, the size of a small, single-cell flashlight, project a laser light through a special lens that can be seen up to 30 miles. The patented technology converts a point of laser light into an expanding fan of light with much higher visibility than traditional signaling devices.
"Can be seen up to 30 miles" is a bogus marketing number in this situation. It was tested by a boat magazine and found to be no more than like a twinkling star at 3 miles. I have a LED hand flare which does better at 3 miles. The only upside is the tiny size of their smaller laser which makes it EDC possible so its better than nothing. But can I do better? I'm surprised if not
Have a look at the FAQs all of them are good/informative :
and "about"
#4 says. "Wouldn't my laser pointer do the same thing?
No. In order to signal at a distance with a laser pointer, you would have to accurately hit your target in the eye in order for them to see you. Our products draw a line which fans out the further it goes. At 16 miles, you have a 6,000 ft. long fan of light with which to hit your target. Please see
Fanning out the light must reduce its power significantly and it is so weak to start with the range is too small for the intended purpose. It seems with a powerful beam not impossible to hit a target at 9km youtu.be/5I22h1tbE9s
Bottom line: you can build a powerful pointer yourself or buy a powerful laser pointer from maker in China but forget about waterproof unless you want to put it in a waterproof bag perhaps, twist activation, use as a rescue/distress beacon, and long run time duty cycle, generally + without proper laser glasses/goggles would be more of "an eye accident looking for a place to happen" than a rescue or distress beacon
Not a long run time beacon but a short term pointing at specific things that pass by. Any idea how greatland made theirs waterproof? I have a few chinese flashlights which are waterproof but having no knowledge of these do they shoot through a glass lens in which case same as flashlight, if not is it possible to use epoxy and make one waterproof?
Thanks but doesnt seem anything ideal there.
Have a look at this laser pointer hazard chart:
Seen that and its why i was thinking 250 to 500mW might be ideal. Distraction is the key thing I need. I need to be able to raise alarm with it in people who are not already looking for me. A green glow in a cockpit at 40,000 ft over the ocean. 500mW is only a glare hazard to 2 miles. I have my LED flare for those distances, the laser would only be for ships on the horizon (5miles) or planes (up to 20miles)
Read up on laser safety here--best site in the web:
thanks
 

Encap

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Probably a more modern times approach would be an emergency transmitter which sends GPS co-ordinates of the vessel or person in distress, which was not possible in prior times is a better bet. Something small along the lines of an Iridium GMDSS- Global Maritime Distress Signal System or even satellite phone to call someone in the event of distress perhaps see: https://www.iridium.com/services/gm...MIiOm2y4D-7QIVA2yGCh0cQwviEAMYASAAEgK8GfD_BwE
"In 2020, Iridium expects to provide mariners with an alternative GMDSS solution that will offer secure, reliable, and truly global voice and data GMDSS communications in a single, small-form-factor maritime mobile terminal – at a fraction of the price of today’s solutions."

From review here: https://www.practical-sailor.com/safety-seamanship/ps-tests-new-green-rescue-laser
"The Rescue Laser is by no means a replacement for position-locating devices, or even aerial flares, but adding it to your ditch bag adds versatility to your survival kit. If we could afford it, we’d have one of these tethered to every PFD and foulie jacket on board."

Not sure what the chances are of being able to hold a laser steady enough to hit a pilot in the eye at 40,000 ft but it may be possible--would need to test the practicality first additionally green is not usually used as a distress signal so...

There is a 2015 US Coast Report here you might find interesting: https://homeport.uscg.mil/Lists/Content/Attachments/538/USCG R and D Center Report on VDS.pdf

Whatever the case, best of luck in your travels and for a happy and healthy 2021
 
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athomson

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Same as the USCG I've discounted the use of weak lasers. LEDs are better now.

The type of signal I'm thinking of is a raising the alarm signal rather than showing a light for searchers type signal. Does a strong laser have the potential to do both? Yes for sure ideally I would have a functioning global satellite linked PLB on me and it all worked to plan but its all about redundancy especially with electronics in a wet environment.

I have a DSC handheld VHF radio which has an 11 hour battery, is line of sight only, so 5 miles maybe if i was at sea level. Even if a nearby ship isn't maintaining a watch on CH16 the DSC function should work and someone will start looking. I have a LED distress beacon visible for 3 miles or a little more when they do search. Together I think there's a high chance of success in waters with heavy traffic. But if the radio fails or is lost having a back up to raise the alarm, that doesn't rely on someone already looking for me or maintaining a good watch, thats small enough to always be on me, seems like a smart move.

In the ocean out of VHF range even with a PLB or EPIRB thats then only one means of raising alarm. I agree it is by far the best method available but still having a backup seems smart.

Having a STRONG laser that will bounce light around a plane's cockpit even for a split second will be noticed by a half asleep pilot "what was that!". And then another flash and they'll know its a laser. If they are over the water surely they'll report it and set the ball rolling.

Having a STRONG laser that will bounce all around the room of crew quarters on a ship when the watch failed to see it.

Is such a strong laser possible, a 50mW would be 10x more noticeable, a huge increase but obviously 500mw is 100 times more than the rescue laser so has quite different potential but is it possible/available or have to be made or is it really not possible?

It seems like that sort of power hasn't featured in any thinking as a rescue device let alone testing so far

I see from this thread that this company just sells the same weak laser for increasing amounts of money, i suspected as much
laserpointerforums.com/threads/i-bought-a-laser-from-laserpointerpro-com.103659/

But then the people who replied have much more powerful ones in their signatures. I tried copy and pasting into google but can't find any where to buy them.
 

athomson

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I just double checked the legal side of this in the UK and it is clear that it is allowed with a reasonable excuse legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2018/9/section/1

And there is no law against importing or owning any power of laser in the UK. Only misusing one.

My biggest worry in all this is my kids getting hold of it and misusing it either for their safety or legal issues. But I bare in mind that this is an alternative to actual explosives (pyrotechnic flares) which I'd be using on a small island of flammable plastic with large plastic sheets (sails) flapping above my head. They take both hands to set off leaving none to hold on to the wet rocking boat to make sure I don't fall over at the wrong moment and shoot it into the hatch.
 

Encap

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Stay away for laserpointerpro--they misrepresent/fraudulently represent everything they sell and charge absurd prices--they are just Chinese bandit resellers who would be selling ping-pong balls if they were not selling bogus specification overpriced lasers.

Nothing is going to be sold for your specific intended purpose/use for many reasons, among them no approvals of such devices for that use and thus no market for unapproved "rescue/Distress beacon devices" of unrecognized and dubious, if any, usefulness. Everything is possble and functions perfectly in imagination----not so in the real world or when put to actual test however.
That being said:
Sanwu is an actual laser maker who sells direct to end users---they make a so called "waterproof", whatever that actually means, laser --have a look at their site and ask them which one is the most water resistant best for saltwater sea rescue beacon use---- if you goggle "Sanwu waterproof laser" you get links to the Sanwu silver series with has an unlimited duty cycle/continuous runtime . Most high powered lasers have a short run time/limited duty cycle of a minute or two on and same off to avoid being damaged by thermal runaway heat generated by same.
I seem to remember several of the Sanwu products are water resistant to one degree or another.
The owner Podo is a member of LPF---email Sanwu and ask him which would be best, if any, in the envisioned use environment https://www.sanwulasers.com/product/silver

You can email Gray at JetLasers who make their lasers as well and ask if anything they can offer or do a special makeup model that would work in your application.
see: https://www.jetlasers.org/index.php
 
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Gatrezal

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I bought a few random things from this company and was happy with what I got...
they make a “scuba” laser pointer, but also sell different 532nm modules and offer custom work. Not sure if it will help you any but thought I’d mention them as another resource.

(I’d like one of those scuba hosts if I could swap out the module...seems cool)
 

athomson

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I bought a few random things from this company and was happy with what I got...

they make a “scuba” laser pointer, but also sell different 532nm modules and offer custom work. Not sure if it will help you any but thought I’d mention them as another resource.

(I’d like one of those scuba hosts if I could swap out the module...seems cool)
yes the host is ideal for what I wanted but the power is too low.
 

athomson

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Nothing is going to be sold for your specific intended purpose/use for many reasons, among them no approvals of such devices for that use and thus no market for unapproved "rescue/Distress beacon devices" of unrecognized and dubious, if any, usefulness. Everything is possble and functions perfectly in imagination----not so in the real world or when put to actual test however.
I suspect this is a dead end. You are right that its unlikely that anything will be approved, so nothing over 5mW will be made or tested. But its a shame as it seems from the links you gave there are powerful lasers that have good enough run time to make them worth carrying, sufficient duty cycle and with beam expanders available aiming should be very possible. The other poster linked one that is submersible, with a twist base. All the pieces are there but if there will never be a market then prices will never be low enough to make them tempting to have as a "why not have one" extra device. As laws against powerful laser pointers increase the market in general won't develop much.

I was seeing the bogus claimed powerful lasers at $50 dollars which made we wonder. But getting a custom made one for hundreds rules it out. Thanks anyway for your input.
 

RA_pierce

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I agree that you won't find a commercially made product that matches the ideal outlined in the first post.
However, fabricating one to specification is certainly possible. Waterproofing electronics is not difficult.
The other "however," which is more important, in my opinion, is the practicality issue.

I tend to avoid reserving battery-operated tools for my emergency toolkit.
Cold weather can reduce the performance of lithium batteries and cloud cover can obscure planes or other vessels that you may want to contact, making it impossible to signal them with a laser. Even if you knew where your target was, even a 1 W green laser will have a hard time punching through clouds, much less signaling your location to an observer.
I think a laser is not a bad idea, but perhaps not the best option. Others have discussed those options so I won't reiterate.

That said, if I were to build one for myself, I might consider going with a powerful red (638nm) laser diode. While not quite as bright as green they are still very bright at ~1W. The advantages of red: 1) as you say, it is more traditional as a distress signal; and 2) the laser diodes are more efficient than green (lower forward voltage), which means you get a longer lasting battery and less heat. The low voltage requirement also opens up more battery options. This leads us to another important point: battery choices.

I prefer low self-discharge NiMH batteries for electronics I take on backpacking or road- trips (usually Sanyo Eneloop). These types of batteries are a good choice if you know the device will be sitting in a bag, unused, for long periods of time. I use a GPS device for marking waypoints for research in the field and haven't had any issues with NiMH batteries even on cold, frosty mornings. On the other hand, I have had Li-Ion batteries fail prematurely at important moments while working in the cold. Of course, this is my experience and yours may differ, but it's worth researching battery types to determine which chemistry is right for your application and expected operating conditions.
 

Alaskan

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I would not use 532 nm DPSS for two reasons, the efficiency will be lower than a 525 nm direct to wavelength laser diode, and they do not operate well in the cold, if too cold, they don't work at all. A direct wavelength diode will run fine when chilled.
 

athomson

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I agree that you won't find a commercially made product that matches the ideal outlined in the first post.
However, fabricating one to specification is certainly possible. Waterproofing electronics is not difficult.
The other "however," which is more important, in my opinion, is the practicality issue.

I tend to avoid reserving battery-operated tools for my emergency toolkit.
compare it to what is used now. Explosive flares that only burn for 30 seconds, dangerous, bulky, expiry dates quite short. Terrible archaic things but still obligatory to carry them in many places depending on type of boat. They wouldn't get to production if only thought of now.
Cold weather can reduce the performance of lithium batteries and cloud cover can obscure planes or other vessels that you may want to contact, making it impossible to signal them with a laser. Even if you knew where your target was, even a 1 W green laser will have a hard time punching through clouds, much less signaling your location to an observer.
I think a laser is not a bad idea, but perhaps not the best option. Others have discussed those options so I won't reiterate.

That said, if I were to build one for myself, I might consider going with a powerful red (638nm) laser diode. While not quite as bright as green they are still very bright at ~1W. The advantages of red: 1) as you say, it is more traditional as a distress signal; and 2) the laser diodes are more efficient than green (lower forward voltage), which means you get a longer lasting battery and less heat. The low voltage requirement also opens up more battery options. This leads us to another important point: battery choices.

I prefer low self-discharge NiMH batteries for electronics I take on backpacking or road- trips (usually Sanyo Eneloop). These types of batteries are a good choice if you know the device will be sitting in a bag, unused, for long periods of time. I use a GPS device for marking waypoints for research in the field and haven't had any issues with NiMH batteries even on cold, frosty mornings. On the other hand, I have had Li-Ion batteries fail prematurely at important moments while working in the cold. Of course, this is my experience and yours may differ, but it's worth researching battery types to determine which chemistry is right for your application and expected operating conditions.
all good thoughts thank you, I agree lithium batteries are sketchy in the cold, had an issue just last week. Are there NiMH batteries similar in size and capacity to 18650s? I can only find AA or C.

But I think ultimately it will come down to price and maybe size. Now i see that the actually more powerful lasers are quite big and expensive I doubt its such a good idea as it seemed when looking at the bogus claimed powerful pointers.

But what price could you make a 1w red 18650 based waterproof laser for? Perhaps with a beam spreader instead of a plain lens.
 

Encap

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But what price could you make a 1w red 18650 based waterproof laser for? Perhaps with a beam spreader instead of a plain lens.
You can buy a supposedly waterproof Sanwu silver series with unlimited continuous runtime rather than a short 1 minute or so on/1 or 2 min off duty cycle -- a 1W 638nm red Sanwu silver is $240 and a 3X beam expander for it if you want one is $55 more which combned is almost nothing in the context of the costs of boating . See: https://www.sanwulasers.com/product/silver

In both UK and USA the laws against aiming at aircraft exempt emergency use from prosecution , however, no emergency uses are recognized, acknowledged, sanctioned, organized as such, or approved.

Daydreams and imagined uses in and under ideal circumstances, in an ideal world that doesn't exist aside, the practical real world aspects of your envisioned use are at very best problematical and probably would be ineffectual. Is just not what laser pointers are used and acknowledged for in the real world.
A laser being used by 1 guy as an imagined 1off rescue beacon laser which is unauthorized, unacknowledged, unapproved, unconventional, unrecognized, and eccentric/not well known or received for such a use-really? Maybe if a low flying aircraft was actively actually looking for you already you might have a chance of signaling them as to you location if you could manage to effectively aim it well enough and long enough which is what the Greatland laser flares are about. I doubt if Greatland products have significant sales #s or are widely used however even at that. There is a bit about laser distress signals here: https://www.laserpointersafety.com/rescue.html

I would guess an aircraft at 40,000 feet would just ignore same and maybe if aggravated enough report the incident after landing. Why would anyone chase/investigate your beacon when nobody owes you even the time of day? Why investigate at considerable cost and time of a rescue activity of any kind just to see whether or not it is a distress situation or just another idiot/nutter/ass-hat pointing a laser at an aircraft like happens thousands of time a year all over the world?
Whatever you get your hands on it is just going to be another laser pointer in a world with 10s of thousands if not 100s of thousands of them. It is not going to be a legitimate rescue anything or anything even close just because you own one and use it however you use it.
Can you find even one referenced instance of anyone under any circumstances anywhere in the world land or sea being rescued because of a laser beacon that would not have been rescued without a laser? Are there any craft land, sea, or air OEM equipped with lasers for rescue beacon purposes?

In the real world of lasers and aircraft do not mix well ---lasers being aimed at aircraft are a big problem in US and in UK with roughly 10,000 or so incidents per year in USA and 1000 per year in UK. and are not by any stretch of imagination an approved and acknowledged rescue forces activity trigger.
See: https://www.laserpointersafety.com/latest-stats/latest-stats.html
and see: https://www.laserpointersafety.com/news/news/other-news_files/category-aviation-incidents.php#on
 
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athomson

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Lasers are already used for emergency use as a distress signal. Google will bring up some times that its been useful eg laserpointersafety.com/news/news/aviation-incidents_files/748574c5aeed480919df641d1cad4d05-487.php

Being signalled from the sea rules out some random idiot with a laser. Anyone who crosses the sea on a regular basis has a different attitude to considering if someone is in need as they know they might one day be in that situation. It is a part of their training to think how they would signal for help and that anything which catches their attention warrants some investigation. A signal mirror is a common means, just a white flashing light. No one dismisses it because the sun isn't always shining. Likewise I'm not suggesting a laser would always be ideal, i just thought it was worth looking into if it was something worth adding to a grab bag. Seems probably not.
 

Encap

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Have a look here --much better than any laser beacon could ever be and not expensive in the context of boating and emergency equipment --- https://spinoff.nasa.gov/Spinoff2012/ps_3.html "Today, 41 countries participate in the operation and management of Cospas-Sarsat, ready to respond to any one of the over 1 million beacons registered and in use worldwide. Between more ground stations—many of which to be built by TSi—and satellites that will be linked, the system will continue to provide a great deal of redundancy, which is a good thing for those receiving and interpreting distress signals."
See devices widely available even on Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/s?k=personal+locator+beacon+waterproof&i=electronics&crid=33LG0Z3SEV2H9&sprefix=personal+locator+beacion,electronics,160&ref=nb_sb_ss_sc_5_24 There are several such devices most all of them in the $200-$300 range

How about this one for less than $300. Makes an imagined custom laser that nobody makes or uses for variety of real reasons as a rescue beacon device look very pale, misguided , and lacking at best in terms of potential effectiveness for the purpose by comparison. IMHO
Ocean Signal rescueME PLB1 https://oceansignal.com/products/plb1/
"30% smaller (typ) by volume
Easily fits to lifejacket*
Retractable Antenna
7 Year Battery Life
7 year warranty
24+ hour operational life
High brightness strobe light >1candela
66 channel GPS receiver
Unique mounting clip
Operates on the global Cospas Sarsat rescue system
Free to use, no subscription charges
Supplied with free flotation pouch

Wherever you are, at sea, on land, the rescueME PLB1 provides the reassurance that global emergency services can be alerted by the press of a button.
The rescueMe PLB1 can be operated with a single hand in even the most challenging situations. A simple spring loaded flap covers the activation button preventing inadvertent use.
RescueME PLB1 works with the only officially recognized worldwide dedicated search and rescue satellite network (operated by Cospas Sarsat). As this is funded by governments there are NO CHARGES to use this service.
When activated the rescueME PLB1 transmits your position and your ID to a Rescue Coordination Center via satellite link. Rescue services nearest to your are promptly notified of your emergency and regularly advised of your current location to assist prompt rescue.

Perhaps a Greatland laser flare or other laser of whatever kind or output to assist in locating you in the event that any Rescue services are close by and actually actively are searching/looking for you might be an idea if it's use didn't just piss off/anger, discourage, and cause a hazard for the rescue people, as a high powered laser at an aircraft pilot's eyes or anyone's eyes might well do.
Would guess that is in part one of the reasons the Greatland laser flares are limited to an eye-safe<5mW + product liability insurance would be impossible for any output greater thus <5mW is as "updated" as laser flares ever will be unless the Laws, rules, and regulations are changed which is not likely for safety reasons.
The legal output limit of a laser pointer sold from within the USA to end users within the USA as a regular item of commerce or imported for that purpose is 5nW or less.
"Laser products promoted for pointing and demonstration purposes are limited to hazard Class IIIa by FDA regulation.
21 CFR 1040.11(b) and 1040.11(c), limit surveying, leveling, and alignment, and demonstration laser products to Class IIIa. This means that pointers are limited to 5 milliwatts output power in the visible wavelength range from 400 to 710 nanometers."
~ https://www.fda.gov/radiation-emitt...rtant-information-laser-pointer-manufacturers
 
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