I don't know if the linear CCD would work though, since a lot of times the beams are asymmetric and with linear CCD you will only get the cross section of the beam. Unless youscan the across the beam. The filter issue is fairly easy to resolve since you can have a combination of filters so for higher power laser you can just add on more filter. Or one of those adjustable one might work, but be aware that there will be difference in OD across the beam because the filter density change is continuous.
I use both linear CCDs and large format CCDs. Webcam CCDs are for the most part worthless as most of them are too small. It is also difficult to get the calibration data for Webcam CCD pixel spacing. Not surprisingly, Webcams often do not have the same CCD from batch to batch.
See here, some day I'll finish the thread with the actual setup in use.