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Old 03-06-2014, 04:47 PM #1
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Default Laser Technology Advancements (at least from my easily impressed perspective)

This Thread Made Available by The Doctor:







In the Beginning

Physics,aps.org | January 27, 2005• Phys. Rev. Focus 15, 4
Focus: Invention of the Maser and Laser



Charles Townes’ pair of papers on the first maser in 1954 and 1955 laid the foundation for the laser era.

Proud father. Charles Townes and his colleagues were the first to build a “maser,” which operated in the microwave frequency range. It was the precursor of the laser

The ubiquitous laser, appearing today in supermarket checkout machines, CD players, and eye surgeon’s offices, developed out of the maser, which was first described in Physical Review papers published in 1954 and 1955. The maser–the name stands for “microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation”–in turn depended on an insight that came from Albert Einstein almost 40 years earlier. But the path from theory to application was far from straightforward, and it took ingredients from many different disciplines for these theoretically simple devices to achieve practicality

After World War II, radar scientists looking for ways to generate electromagnetic radiation at wavelengths shorter than one centimeter began collaborating with physicists who wanted to use such radiation to investigate molecular structure. When atomic bonds inside a molecule flip between slightly different forms, they often absorb or emit centimeter- or millimeter-band radiation.

Vacuum tubes and related devices, used in radar, are impractical for producing sub-centimeter wavelength radiation. But in the early 1950s, Charles Townes, then at Columbia University in New York City, had the idea that molecules themselves would make good emitters of the desired wavelengths, if only he could persuade large numbers of molecules to emit en masse

Recent research came to Townes’ aid. Back in 1916, Albert Einstein had deduced theoretically the existence of stimulated emission–the process by which electromagnetic waves of the right frequency can “stimulate” an excited atom or molecule to fall to a lower energy state and emit more waves. In 1947 Willis Lamb and Robert Retherford, also of Columbia, used stimulated emission to amplify the radiation emitted by hydrogen molecules in order to better measure the frequency of a specific molecular transition [1].

Townes was familiar with microwave engineering techniques and saw a way to go further. If he could assemble a population of excited molecules in a cavity with the right dimensions, radiation emitted by some of the molecules would reflect back and interact with other molecules, causing further stimulated emission. The feedback loop between the cavity and molecules would dramatically amplify the signal, he reasoned.

Townes and his colleagues built the first maser in 1954. They sent a beam of excited ammonia molecules into a resonant cavity. Emission became self-sustaining as radiation from molecules in the cavity stimulated further radiation from the continuously renewed supply of excited molecules. Radiating at a wavelength of a little over one centimeter, the power of this first maser was tiny, some ten nanowatts. But the energy was concentrated in a spectacularly sharp line in the emission spectrum–in other words, the radiation was exceedingly uniform, consisting of a single wavelength with little contamination from other wavelengths.

Many theorists had told Townes his device couldn’t possibly work. Once it did, other researchers quickly replicated it and began inventing variations on it. In 1958 Townes and Arthur Schawlow of Bell Laboratories in New Jersey proposed a system that would work at infrared and optical wavelengths [2] but it wasn’t until 1960 that the first light-emitting maser–which quickly became known as the laser–was constructed [3]. Townes shared the 1964 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on masers and lasers.


Laser development attracted later legal wrangling as various groups fought over patents. But Bernard Burke of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, who remembers seeing the original maser at Columbia, says that Townes “wasn’t interested in keeping it a secret. It was a nice example of the openness of science.”

–David Lindley is a freelance writer in Alexandria, Virginia, and author of Uncertainty: Einstein, Heisenberg, Bohr, and the Struggle for the Soul of Science (Doubleday, 2007).



Laser Inventor | The biography of Theodore Maiman


Ted and his father Abe

Quote:
Theodore Harold Maiman was born on the 11th of July 1927 in Los Angeles. Soon after, his father Abe, an electronics engineer, got a job offer in Colorado, and the family moved to Denver. As a young boy, Theodore (or "Ted") was curious, creative and adventuresome. His father Abe, an inventor himself, introduced him to the world of technology and had a profound influence on developing Ted's passion in electronics.

Abe always kept a small electronics laboratory wherever they lived, either in the basement or the attic. Having access to professional equipment, young Ted was able to design sophisticated projects like audio amplifiers and simple radios. He got his first job, when he was 12, in an electrical appliance repair shop in Denver. Maiman's knowledge of electronics and electricity, which he acquired in his father's laboratory, was more than sufficient to repair everything brought in. At 17, after graduating from high school, he got a job as a junior engineer at the National Union Radio Company in Nutley, New Jersey. During that time, he passed the examination for a first class commercial radio–telephone licence as the youngest person in USA to hold it. Also that year, Maiman enlisted in the US Navy. He was accepted into the radar and communications training program, which furthered and strengthened his electronics knowledge.

After the navy, Maiman attended the University of Colorado, earning a Bachelor of Science in Engineering Physics. His graduate studies were at Stanford University (M.S. in electrical engineering, PhD in physics). His doctoral thesis in experimental physics, under the direction of future Nobel Laureate Willis Lamb, involved microwave-optical measurements of fine structure splittings in excited helium atoms. The doctoral thesis produced jointly submitted papers to the Physical Review (June 1955 and January 1957).

In January 1956, Maiman started work at Hughes Atomic Physics Department (Culver City , California), where he headed the ruby maser project for the US Army Signal Corps. He dramatically improved the performance and design of the maser (reducing its weight from the original 5,000 lbs to 25 lbs) and delivered it on time.

He further refined the maser design, so that the final version worked with liquid nitrogen cooling (previous versions required lower temperatures and worked with liquid helium), and weighed only 4 pounds. He completed the maser project in the summer of 1959 and in August he was finally able to divert his attention to the laser concept, despite of lack of support from Hughes. The "race" to build the laser was in full speed.


Quote:
Thanks to his independent attitude, he won the "race". In May 1960, he demonstrated the laser in action, from a ruby crystal in his laboratory at Hughes in Malibu, where the company had recently moved. It is important to note that Hughes' total expenditures in the period of laser development amounted to about $50,000, while other research groups spent millions of dollars in their unsuccessful struggles to obtain the coherent light.

On June 22 of that year, Maiman sent a paper to the Physical Review Letters about his achievement, but received a letter of rejection stating that the publisher was no longer interested in maser related papers. Next, he sent a short version of his paper to the British journal "Nature". Consequently, the first scientific report about the first laser appeared on August 6, 1960 not in the USA but in Great Britain. The paper was titled "Stimulated Optical Radiation in Ruby" (Nature, 1960, v.187, P.493).


Quote:
In 1962, Maiman founded Korad Corporation to develop and manufacture a line of high-powered laser equipment. Korad became the market leader in its field; for example, the ruby laser created at Korad led to lunar laser ranging in 1969. Subsequently he formed Maiman Associates, a management consulting firm which provided technical and management advisory services in high technology fields. He also co-founded Laser Video, Inc., where he developed unique large-screen, laser driven color video displays.

From 1976 to 1983, Maiman was Vice President of Advanced Technology and New Ventures for the Electronics and Defense sector of TRW. He was instrumental in organizing and launching TRW's commercial LSI Products Division, and he introduced fiber-optics technology and advanced array processor products to the company.

In 1999 he moved to Vancouver with his wife Kathleen, and three years later he was awarded an honorary doctorate from Simon Fraser University. In 2000, Maiman completed a memoir entitled "The Laser Odyssey", outlining the years and months leading up to the completion of the first laser, and his later achievements. Before his death on May 5th, 2007, he was active in the development of the optical engineering and biophotonics curriculum at SFU's School of Engineering Science.


Quote:
Over his lifetime, Maiman published some 20 papers in professional journals and authored several articles in scientific encyclopedias. He presented invited papers at the American Physical Society, American Optical Society, International Conference on Quantum Electronics, the International YAG Medical Laser Society (1983), international laser medical symposiums in Tokyo, Taipei, and Bangkok, and delivered the opening ceremonial speech at the international Symposium "Laser 73" in Munich.


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His work is included in the Smithsonian Institute and the National Inventors Hall of Fame.
The Book
Don't miss your chance to pick up a hardcover copy of The Laser Odyssey for $42.50+shipping.
The book gives you an inside account of the invention of the laser and tells the story from Ted Maiman's unique perspective.
The book, The Laser Odyssey, gives you an inside account of the invention of the laser and tells the story from Ted Maiman's unique perspective.

Available on Amazon
Hardcover: 216 pages
Publisher: Laser Pr (February 2001)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 0970292708
ISBN-13: 978-0970292704



TRUMPF Group, On The Importance Of The Laser

In the 1950s, American Eugene Watson began a love affair with science and technology that continues today. The pioneering laser entrepreneur shares his memories of laser technology's beginnings.

“We set the laboratory up in the laundry room”


Quanta-Ray, 1976 (from left): Gene Watson with Toru Maruyama, the Japanese principle agent of his new company Quanta-Ray, his old friend and co-founder Earl Bell and Stanford University scientist Richard L. Herbst. In 1981 Watson and Bell sold Quanta-Ray to Spectra-Physics — Earl Bell’s earlier creation and Gene Watson’s former employer. The brand name is still used there.

How did you first get interested in lasers?
For me it began years before the acronym laser was invented. In the early 1950s during the Korean War, I was drafted into the Army and became a radar officer. I was never exposed to technology before, but I really took to it and became infatuated with science. The thing I liked most about science was that once you discover a scientific truth it remains forever true. The other thing that attracted me was the people - their integrity, intellect and thirst for knowledge.

When I got out of the Army, I went back to the San Francisco Bay area and sought employment at a number of technology-based companies, including Varian Associates. Varian was heavily involved in microwaves, which fit with my radar background, so they hired me. At Varian I was very fortunate to establish a lifelong friendship with another self-educated scientist, a fellow named Earl Bell. He co-founded Spectra-Physics and was the one who discovered the ion laser

How did this friendship influence you?
Earl Bell was a huge influence on me. He had a remarkable life story, which included almost singlehandedly saving an escort aircraft carrier during World War II. Earl was a very creative thinker. Always had an ingenious solution to whatever the problem was. We did a number of things together, including running a steam railroad in New Mexico and starting Quanta-Ray, a successful company eventually sold back to Spectra-Physics.

How did you get started working in laser technology?
After the 1958 Physics Society meeting where Charles Townes and Arthur Schawlow proposed that a laser was possible and described what it would take to make a laser, it was like the fourminute mile. We thought no one could run a mile in four minutes until one guy finally did, then everybody started doing it. Nobody could make a laser work until 1960 when Ted Maiman did. Like so many others, we, too, followed along with our own ruby laser development. The ruby laser wasn't particularly exciting to me because it didn't seem to have any commercial application. I was much more interested in the helium neon laser developed in 1961. We built a helium neon laser on a breadboard at Varian immediately following the development at Bell Lab.



Recalling the wild times: In 1966 Gene Watson introduced Coherent’s first CO2 laser with this ad: “The first laser that can do real work.”


Laser Development Advancement Milestones

What has driven the development of the laser ? What ideas did the major applications in material processing emerge from ? Find out the answers to these questions from physicist Mario Bertolotti and industry journalist David Belforte.

1961: Q-Switch - Q-switching allows short pulses with very high power in the nanosecond range. It was crucial for the first applications like the welding of springs for watches.

1961: nonlinear optics - The invention of the laser was the key to putting the theory of nonlinear optics into practice. This allowed the application of many electrical techniques in optics.

1962: Semiconductor laser - The semiconductor laser had been researched since 1955. Laser light was first generated in 1962. In the 1980s it was established in the communication technology and after that it found its way into many products, making them remarkably smaller.

1963: Mode-locking - Mode-locking produces a regular stream of very stable pulses all of the same intensity. It has been fundamental for laser communication and is at the basis for

1964: CO2 laser - The CO2 laser was the first laser that allowed very high power for laser treatment of materials, and laser machining with larger materials.

about 1965: Laser marking - The idea of marking metal came up early. Yet it took ten years before it started to grow into the widespread application it is today.

1966: Dye lasers - The emission spectra of fluorescent dyes permit tuning the laser wavelength over a fairly broad range. Dye lasers are fundamental for the operation of many lasers including some femtosecond lasers.

1967: Sheet metal cutting - The concept took hold when the first gas assist nozzle was presented. It soon drove the development of a jobshop industry and easy-to-handle high powered laser systems.

1968: Pulse compression - This technique compresses pulses. Pulse compression made it possible to increase the intensity of a laser beam while the energy remains at the same level.

1971: Micro-via drilling - Western Electric was the first to connect two layers of a multilevel substrate by a conducting hole. This technique plays an important role in the production of high efficiency solar cells.

about 1971: Turbine blade drilling - The race for faster jet planes led to a new cooling technique: laser drilled holes in the turbine blades. This application drove developments like precision multi-axis positioning systems and computer control of beam focus.

1971: Circuit adjustment - By 1971 Motorola started to adjust deposited circuits by evaporating sections from them. From this idea sprang one of the earliest widespread industrial applications.

about 1973: Hermetic sealing - Industry demands for electronic circuitry that could operate in “unfriendly” environments played an important role in the initiation and growth of industrial lasers.

1982: Tailored blank welding - This technique contributed immensely to the design and production of lighter weight and more energy efficient vehicles. More than 400 automated laser blank welders are currently installed globally with that number increasing.

1982: TI-sapphire laser - This laser is used to generate short pulses in the pico second and femtosecond range. The uneable ti:sapphire laser made femtosecond lasers key laboratories tools.

1987: Additive process - At the beginning was the idea of a California company that would use a laser to generate three dimensional structures in a light-sensitive polymer. Later on, methods such as rapid prototyping, laser deposition welding and micro stereolithography emerged from this idea.

1988: Diode laserpumping - This technique allowed all-solidstate lasers which have become especially important in applications such as welding, cutting, drilling and marking.

1992: Stent cutting - A fine example of how the laser revolutionized an industry — medical devices. Starting from the first application, the laser became the tool of choice as the world demand for stents rose quickly.

2000 - 2009: Teraherz lasers, nano particle generation …Today, laser technology is generating more ideas than ever. But which of these ideas will be a milestone remains to be seen.



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Old 03-17-2014, 07:42 PM #2
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Christie To Demo Breakthrough 3D Cinema Technology For Premium Cinema Experiences With Latest ‘6-Primary’ 4K Laser Projector

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CYPRESS, Calif. – (March 3, 2014) – Christie® today announced upcoming demonstrations of the world’s most advanced laser projection architecture and Dolby® 3D, to be held in the Christie Innovation Theaters throughout CinemaCon 2014 (Caesars Palace, March 24-27) and the National Association of Broadcasters NAB Show® (Las Vegas Convention Center, April 5-10). Christie DLP® Cinema® laser projectors using 6-Primary (6P) color laser modules, earmarked for mass production in early 2015
Quote:
Christie’s 6P laser projectors generate a proprietary mix of photoptically-optimized light wavelengths for each eye directly from the source, in effect eliminating the need for a highly inefficient stage of filtering or polarizing the light as it leaves the projector. The Christie demos will use Dolby® 3D glasses specifically engineered to exactly match the 6 primary laser light wavelengths to yield nearly 90 percent light efficiency.
Quote:
Consistent with efforts so far in developing 3-Primary (3P) laser projectors, which Christie sees filling important needs in several, non-cinema industries, Christie laser projectors will provide industry-leading brightness (up to 72,000 Lumens per projector head)
Anyone want in for a GB of one for harvesting? . . .

__________________________________________________ __________________________________________


March 5, 2014 Diamond days as laser singles out an atom

Quote:
Ultraviolet laser light has been used to pick apart a diamond atom by atom, a breakthrough that has implications for the development of quantum computers and other areas of diamond technologies.

The discovery by Australian researchers is outlined in this week's Nature Communications.

Co-author Associate Professor Richard Mildren, of the MQ Photonics Research Centre at Macquarie University, says the first clues about the find came while working on the development of diamond lasers.

He says in these devices the laser beam travels through the diamond, which acts like an engine for the system.

However Mildren says they discovered after a period of use the diamond laser would stop working.

Investigations showed the surface of the diamond facets was eroding with use and ultimately destroying the optical path of the beam.

Mildren says it was while trying to work out how this was happening that the team made the discovery that the UV laser light was able to remove single atoms.
__________________________________________________ __________________________________________

UCSB Research Paves Path for Next-Gen Silicon Photonics EEtimes.com - Posted: 13 Mar 2014
Quote:
San Francisco -- Researchers at the University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB) have developed a novel quantum dot laser design that not only is grown on silicon but that performs as well as similar lasers grown on their native substrates. This opens up a new generation of low-cost, multi-channel laser devices combined with CMOS driver circuits . . .

The team’s results, shown March 12 at the Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), use Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) to grow the 1.3μm dots on a silicon substrate using indium and arsenic. . .

The team grew the quantum dots on engineered germanium/silicon substrates and the III-V molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) template growth from IQE. The growth of the quantum dot laser structure and fabrication of the laser components were performed at UCSB and show that the dots can be cost effectively grown in volume on silicon substrates.

This is a step up from Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) wafers . . .


An optical micrograph of the fabricated laser devices


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Old 03-31-2014, 04:39 PM #3
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Default Re: Laser Technology Advancements (at least from my easily impressed perspective)

SYS-CON MEDIA BY BUSINESS WIRE
MARCH 31, 2014 09:37 AM EDT

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Research and Markets has announced the addition of the "Concise Analysis of the International Continuous Wave Laser Diode Market - Forecasts to 2018" report to their offering.
Laser diode an electronically driven solid state laser with an active medium has emerged as one the best alternatives for projections, laser pointers, and storages. The technology is perceived to be more superior to conventional technologies such as LCDs or LEDs. The market for these devices is increasing excessively in consumer electronics, defence and aerospace and telecommunications industry. With the increasing consumer electronics and telecommunications industry the demand for continuous wave laser diodes is expected to be on high growth trajectory.
According to Global Continuous Wave Laser Diode Market Forecast & Opportunities, 2018, the market for continuous wave based laser diodes is expected to grow at the CAGR of 16% CAGR during 2013-2018. Laser diodes market is mainly driven by technological advancements, growth in consumer electronics, defence and medical sectors. The increasing demand for Head Up Display equipments, pico projectors and video surveillance systems is pushing the sales for continous wave laser diodes globally. The leading players operating in the industry includes Osram Opto Semiconductor, Coherent Inc, Newport Corporation, Nichia Corporation and Sumitomo Electric Industries Limited.

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Old 04-10-2014, 05:49 PM #4
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Posted: Apr 10, 2014 07:15 AM EDT
ScienceWorldReport

New Atom and Photon 'Switch' May Herald Breakthrough for Quantum Computers



Quote:
Quantum computing could be closer than ever. Scientists have used a laser to place individual rubidium atoms near the surface of a lattice of light, which means that there's a new method for connecting particles which, in turn, could help develop quantum computing systems.

"This is a major advance of this system," said Vladan Vuletic, one of the researchers, in a news release. "We have demonstrated basically an atom can switch the phase of a photon. And the photon can switch the phase of an atom."

So what does that mean exactly? Photons can have two polarization states, and interaction with the atom can change the photon from one state to another. By that same token, interaction with the photon can change an atom's energy level from a "ground" state to an "excited" state. This means that atom-photon coupling can essentially serve as a quantum switch.
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Old 05-29-2014, 05:48 PM #5
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Forget the dentist's drill, use lasers to heal teeth
NewScientist.com Published 18:26 29 May 2014 by Lauren Hitchings

Quote:
Praveen Arany at the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research in Bethesda, Maryland, and his colleagues wondered whether they could use stem cells to heal teeth, but bypass the addition of chemicals by harnessing the body's existing mechanisms.


"Everything we need is in the existing tooth structure – the adult stem cells, the growth factors, and exactly the right conditions," says Arany.

So they tried laser light, because it can promote regeneration in heart, skin, lung, and nerve tissues.

To mimic an injury, Arany's team used a drill to remove a piece of dentin – the hard, calcified tissue beneath a tooth's enamel that doesn't normally regrow – from the tooth of a rat. They then shone a non-ionising, low-power laser on the exposed tooth structure and the soft tissue underneath it. This allowed the light to reach the dental stem cells deep inside the pulp of the tooth.

Twelve weeks after a single 5-minute treatment, new dentin had formed in the cavity. Similar dentin production was seen in mice and in cultured human dental stem cells.

BusinessInsider.com
This image shows the structure of the tooth cells as they begin the regeneration process.

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Default Re: Laser Technology Advancements (at least from my easily impressed perspective)

Amazing to think about how much lasers have advanced. This thread was a great read.
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Old 06-01-2014, 08:22 PM #7
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I hope they use this technology for good stuff... Lasers would be great for bone surgery or opening up the chest cavity.
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Old 06-06-2014, 03:24 AM #8
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asdasd

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Old 06-06-2014, 08:40 PM #9
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Default Re: Laser Technology Advancements (at least from my easily impressed perspective)

Indian-Origin sScientist Makes Breakthrough in Laser Technology
Posted New York, June 6, 2014, IANS - DeccanHerald.com

Quote:
Scientists at University of Michigan, led by an Indian American Pallab Bhattacharya, have found a new and more efficient way to make a coherent laser-like beam.

The 'laser-like' beam is made up of precarious particles called polaritons that are part light and part matter. This polariton laser is fuelled by electrical current and works at room temperature, rather than way below zero.

Those attributes make the device the most real-world ready of the handful of polariton lasers ever developed.

"This is big. For the past 50 years, we have relied on lasers to make coherent light and now we have something else based on a totally new principle," said Pallab Bhattacharya, professor of engineering at University of Michigan.
A new way to make laser-like beams using 250x less power (Correction)
Posted Jun 05, Physics/Optics & Photonics - Phys.Org Mobile: latest science and technology news

Quote:
Bhattacharya's system isn't technically a laser. The term was initially an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Polariton lasers don't stimulate radiation emission. They stimulate scattering of polaritons . . .

Polariton lasers don't rely on these population inversions, so they don't need a lot of start-up energy to excite electrons and then knock them back down. "The threshold current can be very small, which is an extremely attractive feature," Bhattacharya said.

He and his team paired the right material – the hard, transparent semiconductor gallium nitride – with a unique design to maintain the controlled circumstances that encourage polaritons to form and then emit light.
Quote:
How it works

A polariton is a combination of a photon or light particle and an exciton – an electron-hole pair. The electron is negatively charged and the hole is technically the absence of an electron, but it behaves as if it were positively charged. Excitons will only fuse with light particles under just the right conditions. Too much light or electrical current will cause the excitons to break down too early. But with just enough, polaritons will form and then bounce around the system until they come to rest at their lowest energy level in what Bhattacharya describes as a coherent pool. There, the polaritons decay and in the process, release a beam of single-colored light.

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Old 06-17-2014, 04:39 PM #10
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Osram Introduces Multi-Chip Laser Diode for Projectors
(PRWEB) June 17, 2014
Quote:
The first compact laser module with a 50 W optical output.

Osram Opto Semiconductors has introduced the first compact laser multi-chip package. The new PLPM4 450 module can pack up to 20 blue laser chips into a single "butterfly" package for projection applications. Instead of taking the laborious approach and constructing a light source from individual laser diodes, it is now possible to reduce the complexity of laser projectors significantly. Osram has also succeeded in doubling the optical output of the individual chips, with the result that the new laser module now offers an overall blue light output of 50 W. This means that professional laser projectors can achieve a brightness level of more than 2000 lumens with only one component.

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Old 06-18-2014, 06:16 PM #11
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The Navy Wants to Mount an Anti-UAV Laser on a Hummer
June 17,2014 gizmodo.com



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The Office of Naval Research has just announced another breakthrough in its efforts to bring laser-based weapons to future battlefields. What once could only be accommodated by a tractor trailer now fits neatly in the back seat of a Humvee. It's only a matter of time until our armed forces march off to war with GI Joe-style laser rifles.

Dubbed the Ground-Based Air Defense Directed Energy On-the-Move program (GBAD), these light truck-mounted laser systems work in the same manner as the HEL MD (below) but at a fraction of the cost, power, and footprint. So while the HEL MD will eventually be outputting 100 KW to shoot down cruise missiles, this 30 KW GBAD will instead target enemy UAVs.
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Old 06-19-2014, 12:05 AM #12
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Originally Posted by madmacmo View Post
Hmm...stealing the [projector] spotlight from Nichia, arent they?
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Old 06-20-2014, 05:54 PM #13
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Transparent Screen Smart Glass Breakthrough




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Giant transparent screens such as those used by Tony Stark in the hit film Iron Man could soon become a reality, researchers have claimed.

They say the smart glass breakthrough could even make your phone more intelligent - building health monitoring sensors directly into the glass.

They say the breakthrough already works with Gorilla Glass, found in the majority of smartphones, and could be implemented into handsets within a year.
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Old 06-20-2014, 09:09 PM #14
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Very nice, Mac. That was a lot of press releases that are showing some of the newest technologies in Laser hardware and applications. Takes a while to comprehend the magnitude of all these new laser formats. I truly enjoyed reading through each and every one. Kudos to you.
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Old 07-17-2014, 10:33 PM #15
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SFGate.com
Wednesday, July 16, 2014

In Breakthrough, Lasers Re-Create Conditions In Planets' Cores
Quote:
Scientists firing powerful pulses of laser beams in experiments at Livermore's National Ignition Facility have for the first time re-created conditions that exist deep in the cores of the solar system's giant planets.

The scientists focused the huge laser's intense energy at targets of synthetic diamonds to create a kind of artificial gravity that in bursts of energy compressed the hard diamonds under immense pressures more than 50 million times greater than Earth's atmosphere.

The squeezed diamonds vaporized in less than 10 billionths of a second, the scientists said.

But with that instantaneous flash, the unprecedented experiments in the science of condensed matter will yield new insights into the nature of all the carbon-rich planets in our own solar system, and also the millions of distant stars and exoplanets that are known to exist far off in the Milky Way galaxy.

Quote:
This is a view of the massive "preamplifyer" chamber at Livermore's National Ignition Facility that boosts the energy of its laser beam to tremendous pressures that enables scientists to recreate conditions at the cores of giant planets like Jupiter and Saturn. Photo: Damien Jemison, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

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Old 07-22-2014, 07:31 PM #16
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Phys.org
July 22, 2014
The study appears in the journal Physical Review B

Quantum leap in lasers brightens future for quantum computing

Quote:
Dartmouth scientists and their colleagues have devised a breakthrough laser that uses a single artificial atom to generate and emit particles of light. The laser may play a crucial role in the development of quantum computers, which are predicted to eventually outperform today's most submit powerful supercomputers.

The new laser is the first to rely exclusively on superconducting electron pairs. "The fact that we use only superconducting pairs is what makes our work so significant," says Alex Rimberg, a professor of physics and astronomy at Dartmouth. Superconductivity is a condition that occurs when electricity can travel without any resistance or loss of energy.

"The artificial atom is made of nanoscale pieces of superconductor," says Rimberg. "The reason for using the artificial atom is that you can now make it part of an electrical circuit on a chip, something you can't do with a real atom, and it means we have a much clearer path toward interesting applications in quantum computing."

Light from the laser is produced by applying electricity to the artificial atom. This causes electrons to hop across the atom and, in the process, produce photons that are trapped between two superconducting mirrors. The process is "invisible to the human eye; the hopping electrons dance back and forth across the atom in time with the oscillating waves of the light," Rimberg says.
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Phys.org
March 18, 2014
Scientists open a new window into quantum physics with superconductivity in LEDs



Quote:
A team of University of Toronto physicists led by Alex Hayat has proposed a novel and efficient way to leverage the strange quantum physics phenomenon known as entanglement. The approach would involve combining light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with a superconductor to generate entangled photons and could open up a rich spectrum of new physics as well as devices for quantum technologies, including quantum computers and quantum communication.

Entanglement occurs when particles become correlated in pairs to predictably interact with each other regardless of how far apart they are. Measure the properties of one member of the entangled pair and you instantly know the properties of the other. It is one of the most perplexing aspects of quantum mechanics, leading Einstein to call it "spooky action at a distance."

"A usual light source such as an LED emits photons randomly without any correlations," explains Hayat, who is also a Global Scholar at the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research. "We've proved that generating entanglement between photons emitted from an LED can be achieved by adding another peculiar physical effect of superconductivity - a resistance-free electrical current in certain materials at low temperatures."

This effect occurs when electrons are entangled in Cooper pairs – a phenomenon in which when one electron spins one way, the other will spin in the opposite direction. When a layer of such superconducting material is placed in close contact with a semiconductor LED structure, Cooper pairs are injected in to the LED, so that pairs of entangled electrons create entangled pairs of photons. The effect, however, turns out to work only in LEDs which use nanometre-thick active regions – quantum wells.

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